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As a theme for theoretical psychology, Doing psychology under New Conditions implies a complex context and shifting background against which our conceptual, philosophical and critical work is briefly foregrounded.

As the contributors to this edition of the conference proceedings show, new connections are forged between previously independent intellectual activities, political allegiances and solidarities shift and change, and previously unanticipated situations require new responses.

The papers in the volume highlight changes to the environments in which psychology operates that are not merely re-iterations of previous theoretical topics.

With philosophy and terror: Transforming bodies into labor power. Silvia Federici. An experiential ethnography of a text-reader conversation: Discovering mental illness.

Dorothy E. Ubuntu, Qi and feeling: An exploration of non-western views of mind. Hans van Rappard. Darwinian aesthetics: Criticizing the good-gene hypothesis of physical beauty.

Nora Ruck. Postmodern shame: Self-effects and emergent productions. Steve Larocco. On the interaction between implicit and explicit strategies for behaviour.

Translating between different frames of reference: A model for the social sciences. Vasi van Deventer. Acts of will: Eastern and Western perspectives.

Martin E. Doing psychology with connectionist nets: The challenging route from simulation to theory.

Chris Janeke. Free will from an ethological perspective. Jannes Eshuis. Psychological inquiry and disciplinary psychology: Distinct problematics.

Rachel Joffe Falmagne. Wahbie Long. Polyvocalism, emancipation, and sociohistoricism: Possibilities for a critical educational psychology.

Stephen Vassallo. Sciences of the living dead: Race, psychology, and epistemic pollution. Thomas Teo. Peripherialization and the history of psychology: An example from Turkey.

Sertan Batur. Problematizing the positive psychology of radical political theory. Mihalis Mentinis. Deconstructing immigration in the UK: Discourses on sameness and otherness.

Ilana Mountian. Psychology in a society beyond liberalism and communitarianism. Identity as an insecure psychological space: Reflections from the shifting ethnopolitics in Kenya.

Rose C. Giouli Tsirtoglou. Electra Anagnostopoulou. Is the discourse on extremism an extremist discourse? Andrea Kleeberg-Niepage. Dahlia Moore. The ethics of psychology in the age of the globalized therapeutic culture.

Ole Jacob Madsen. Alexander J. Dialogue between mediation and style. Cor Baerveldt.

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Some people see the development of AI as a process in which we recklessly hand over our special human capacity of rationality to machines, condemning ourselves to low paid jobs, or even unemployment.

I present the fable of Prometheus, the great titan who was punished for passing on his godly skill of rational thought. I highlight the lessons that can be learnt from this story when considering potential implications of artificial intelligence.

Rationality has become such as constant in human behaviour that the pillars of society law, economics and medicine all assume that decision makers employ rational processes when faced with an option.

This blog will delve into how the ancients viewed rationality, how modern cognitive psychologists view the term and how rationality will shape the future.

However, rationality has been studied by more than just cognitive psychologists. Mathematicians, philosophers, social psychologists and psychoanalysts have all studied rationality, each with different viewpoints on rationality and the extent to which humans participate in rational behaviour.

In Ancient Greece , the world was explained in terms of symbolic entities gods, deities and titans that represented observable phenomenon. For instance, Gaia represented the earth, Poseidon the seas, and the almighty Zeus was symbolic of the heavens above.

Some of these powerful beings, however, represented very human traits. Prometheus meaning forethought and Epimetheus meaning afterthought represented the rational and non-rational or intuitive part of the human mind, respectively.

Once these titans fell out of favour with the Olympians, however, their roles of rationality and intuition fell to the gods Apollo and Dionysus.

Prometheus was the champion of thinking ahead and choosing the long term right path, despite the negative short term effects for himself.

Despite the negative ramifications for himself, he metaphorically, and literally, ignites rationality, abstract thought and logic into the minds of Homo sapiens; thus simultaneously making humans more like the deities they worshipped, and the gods less special.

The creation of the Prometheus myth shows that rationality is a key aspect of humanity, and that the ancient Greeks were aware of the power of rationality.

During the Renaissance, there was a reawakening of rationality , with mathematical or normative concepts, such as probabilities , essential to modern mathematical and psychological theories of rationality being invented.

In association with this development in rationality and mathematics, institutions such as law, medicine and economics were all developing fields and were influenced by the perspective of the time i.

This was the main viewpoint until the cognitive revolution in psychology and the seminal work of Tversky and Kahneman. Their research showed that humans are flawed and that we can make biased decisions.

This perspective has dominated the majority of the last 50 years of work in the field of decision science. Contemporary decision scientists, however, see intuitive thought and rationality as brothers similar to the Greek myths surrounding Prometheus and Epimetheus.

The dual process model of decision making suggests that two different modes of cognition system 1 and system 2 governs our decision making.

System one is an intuitive mode of cognition with a plethora of heuristics making up the components of said system. System two on the other hand is the rational part of the mind, which may be unique to humans.

System two is believed to be more effortful and conscious than the primitive system one mode of cognition. The modern mind-set of rationality is that it is possible to make rational decisions, but that it is difficult and effortful, thus researchers believe that humans much prefer to default to system one.

This flawed perspective of human rationality has led to rationality, the very essence of humanity, becoming synonymous with artificial intelligence and robotics.

Normative mathematical models of rationality have been shown not to reflect the entirety of human behaviour, whereas artificial intelligence AI may be a new frontier to apply these classical models of decision making.

Unlike human beings, artificial intelligence can be programmed to accord with rational principles and statistics. Now computers are powerful enough to win against a human at chess , and it is estimated by researchers that AI will exceed human ability in a number of tasks e.

It is even believed that by AI could replicate the abilities of a surgeon. This speculation suggests that the expansion of artificial intelligence into the realms of rationality may cause humans to become obsolete , with more rational, consistent, and efficient computers replacing biased and flawed humans.

This could cause a number of occupations traditionally employed by humans to be performed by complex AI. Others, such as Peter Fleming , instead argue that AI will cause an increase in poorly paid jobs, as he argues that an important factor in AI being utilised in a profession is, will it be economically viable?

Therefore, Fleming suggests that low skilled and low paid jobs will not be replaced. He expands on this point by suggesting that AI that partially automates a job though an app will also reduce the skill required by the employee, thus decreasing the relevant pay required for the service e.

Furthermore, contrary to contemporary belief, the age of the AI may have a negative effect on human standards of living.

In summary, rationality has always been viewed by humans as a god like ability. By giving this special ability to AI, we may be condemning ourselves to low paid jobs; or even unemployment.

Further bringing to life the story of Prometheus, as the great titan who was punished for passing on to humans his godly skill of rational thought.

It is always very exciting to embark on a new research project. At the beginning there are a flurry of important activities to undertake, such as setting up team meetings, submitting the ethics applications and recruiting for new researchers.

The website tells you about our project and what it involves, the investigative team and our Advisory group, and some of the news items and resources that we have begun to collate.

You can also read my first blog for the project. The aim of this research project is to investigate how separated child migrants, and those involved in their care, make sense of, value, and take part in care relationships and caring practices within the immigration-welfare nexus in England.

How do various economic, social and political factors shape the care priorities of relevant stakeholders?

What are the theoretical, policy, and practice implications of varying understandings and practices of care? She notes that citizens are becoming increasingly datafied by institutions corporations and the government.

In order to investigate this phenomenon, she will be looking at how individuals, experts, corporations and the UK government talk about data privacy.

Last month I attended the mini conference at the OU to talk about what I have learnt this year. I am in my second year part-time and this was a good opportunity to present my work so far and meet with other PhD students.

The conference was focused on methodological issues, so I spoke about a few stumbling blocks I encountered regarding my focus groups.

My research concerns data privacy. Recent technological developments have increased the amount of personal data that we make available to corporations, the government and other institutions daily, and I am interested in this intense datafication of citizens.

As a part of my research I had decided to conduct focus groups to investigate how frequent internet users talk about their privacy.

A frequent internet user, for the purpose of my study, is an individual who accesses the internet multiple times daily through different devices.

Initially I felt confident about this as I had conducted focus groups before. I had impressive goals when I started my research about understanding how ideas about privacy have altered, but now I felt daunted by the task.

How could I represent every age, gender, race, upbringing, occupation etc. I needed to acknowledge as a part of my methodology that, although I have structured my focus groups to be as varied as I can, they are by no means meant to capture a complete cross section of the population.

This variability is what will enable me to conduct a thorough analysis and hopefully do justice to the people who have taken the time to speak with me.

Every research project is imperfect — the important thing is to be aware of its limitations. If I acknowledge and explain in my work why I have made the methodological decisions I have made, then this becomes a feature of the research rather than a flaw.

I have learnt to be kind to myself and give myself the time I would allow others if they were having to face the same task. I imagine all new researchers have lofty goals when we start on this journey but perhaps, we should be all be happy to enjoy our subject and be a brick in the wall that the next person can build upon.

Emma Brice is studying for a PhD in social psychology. Many current and former OU Psychology students will have known him as their tutor and, earlier, as a leader at psychology summer schools.

He also supported OU psychology teaching through his involvement with the British Psychological Society. He was President of the Society from The module chair for DD, Stephanie Taylor, had tutored with Peter in the early s — her first employment with the university but he was already an OU veteran.

That is just one small example of his extra contributions as a psychologist and a teacher. She highlights his dedication to supporting each student to achieve their potential and have the best study experience possible.

She also recalls his lighter side, citing an occasion when he was attending a meeting remotely and colleagues complained about the amount of background noise during the conference call: Peter admitted, giggling, that he was probably the culprit as he was taking the call while on Brighton beach!

She reflects on the political failure to acknowledge their experience and viewpoint, and explains their special importance for her PhD research.

I voted to remain in the EU in , and I am classed as an older citizen. Many researchers are busily investigating reasons for the unforeseen outcome of the UK-EU referendum.

I wanted to explore how experiences of Europe and our relationship with it influenced the vote.

I decided it was particularly important to hear from the voters who have lived the longest and whose experiences include the Second World War and its aftermath.

There is therefore a general tendency to cluster everyone over 65 into a single category or occasionally to subdivide them at The message from this is that once you are over 65 years old, you are part of a group spanning possibly 40 years.

Your opinion and political choices are no longer important enough to disaggregate further. This leads to generalisations around citizen choices.

This, though, may not be an accurate conclusion. My PhD will explore this in detail, and particularly around the experiences of a unique cohort of people, the Silent Generation, born between and — now aged between 73 and 92 years.

Participants in this group may remember World War II and its aftermath. They will certainly recall the rise of the European Union and the first referendum in There are further categories that also diminish the older citizen.

But there is an argument that they are silent for other reasons — that their value as citizens and their opinions are not recognised. This was seen recently during the 75 th anniversary of the D-Day landings on 6 June when veterans were rolled out to reminisce about their experiences and revisit the horrors of that time, before being rolled back into silence.

Some of them expressed regret at the decision to leave the EU in and the threat that brings to peace that has existed since then. However, this message is now forgotten, for the value of the Silent Generation was only acknowledged around 6 June Politically we have moved on.

However, with the benefit of supervision and more reading, I realised that I want to explore this group of people from a dialogical approach, building on the work of Zittoun and others.

In my PhD, I intend to explore the voices of this generation and their political decision making. I will also investigate the role of nostalgia in politics.

One important question will be whether political references to World War II do represent what the war meant to those who experienced it. Zittoun, T.

Academic study implies a trajectory. At that point, most people have fulfilled their study goals. If so, you might go on to do a postgraduate degree, like a Masters.

Doing a PhD is less like a next step than a whole new life project, usually connected to an academic career. On the 17 th of July, some of the PhD students in the School of Psychology and Counselling met for their annual conference.

The students include current members of the Open University staff and they were joined by other academics from the School. Of course all psychology students learn about research — about literature reviews and project design; ethics and informed consent; data collection and then the analysis of data to produce findings.

However, the conference unpicked some finer details and more complex issues. Here are some examples. A literature review leads the researcher to reconsider their initial concepts, and then to rethink the whole project and research question, almost amounting to starting again.

A research topic turns out to concern everybody , leaving the researcher unsure about the basis for selecting the sample of participants.

A research topic is so sensitive that the participants reject all the available terminology for describing it, because every alternative is offensive to someone.

Running a focus group becomes a worrying prospect because opinions on the topic turn out to be so polarised that the participants will almost certainly disagree vehemently.

Each situation was discussed at length, referring to the experience of everyone attending. The day confirmed that research planning is necessary but research practice also requires skills that are only gradually acquired.

And that was what the conference was about! In this week's blog, Stephanie Taylor discusses some social psychological responses to the terrorist attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand.

Nine weeks after they occurred, the terrorist attacks on mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand receive little media attention.

There is still horror about what happened, but it is now combined with people's responses to subsequent awful events, including the April attacks in Sri Lanka.

However, the Christchurch attacks continue to be discussed on academic sites, including in psychology publications. This week's blog will focus on some social psychological interpretations of what happened and why.

They conclude that he was following a form of 'toxic leadership' which they associate with some current heads of state around the world. They draw a contrast with the positive, inclusive leadership presented by the New Zealand Prime Minister.

You can read the article here. Professor Wetherell is more cautious than Reicher et al about what social psychology can contribute to our understanding of the attacks.

She suggests that many conventional social psychological theories and concepts may be inadequate. Wetherell's own contribution to the discussion is an exploration of the 'acceptable discourse' and the lines of logic and feeling that appear in public and personal responses.

Wetherell's article invites us to consider our own positions in relation to that culture, and the extent to which we either question or support it.

She received worldwide attention for her inclusive identification with the victims of the attacks: 'They are us'. Her statements deny any distinction between recent migrants and other New Zealanders, defining the national community, 'us', as united by shared values and aspirations rather than more traditional connections.

She emphasised that the newcomers to New Zealand had chosen it as their country. Both Ahern's claim and the kia kaha post are examples of what Michael Billig called 'banal nationalism': the presentation of a national community to itself.

Previous posts on this blog discuss some British examples. Billig described this presentation as 'banal' not because it is unimportant but because it reinforces the image of the nation through repeated, everyday acts and references, for instance, to 'we' and 'us' and, here, to New Zealanders as principled, strong and ready to fight for what they believe.

Yet it is important to be alert to how similar ideas can be used negatively as well as positively. For example, in a world of moving populations, it is obviously good to welcome newcomers.

It is good to open the national community to more people than those with 'born and bred' connections of family and history.

However, it is perhaps less good to imply that the only people who belong are those with the same values as everyone else, as if living together doesn't require some tolerance of difference.

And while 'choice' can be positive, it also suggests that migrants always have alternatives, as if they have shopped selectively for a new country, rather than, in many cases, feeling themselves forced to go wherever they can, for reasons that may or may not be visible to others.

Social psychologists who study citizenship increasingly define it in terms of what citizens do rather than what they are.

The interest is in the practices which make people part of the national society, rather than the laws which entitle them to passports.

Again, this way of thinking is potentially both positive and negative. In the UK, it is invoked positively in campaigns that highlight how immigrants and refugees contribute to British society.

However, a more problematic aspect appears in the case of Shamima Begum whose British citizenship was revoked because she joined Islamic State.

If good citizenly behaviour should entitle people to official citizenship status although it doesn't, in many cases , the logical converse is that bad behaviour becomes an excuse to exclude people from the national community.

Yet every society has always had its dissenters and lawbreakers, as well as frankly unpleasant people, and sometimes we may find ourselves counted in the 'bad' category.

O ur differences will require discussion and an attempt to understand what may at first seem incomprehensible. The negotiation will be laborious, and never completed but it is also necessary, because 'us' and 'them' are never entirely separate.

In this week's social psychology blog, Stephanie Taylor looks ahead to the UK holiday weekend and considers the meanings of Easter and futures, and reasons to be cheerful, or not.

Today people in the UK will be looking forward to the Easter weekend with various expectations. For some, it is a holiday, although Bank Holidays are perhaps less relevant now that so many workers are self-employed.

For them, and for others like OU students, Easter may appear as exactly the opposite, that is, an opportunity to do extra work. For some people, Easter is important as a major Christian festival.

But perhaps the strongest associations of this long weekend are with the beginning of spring as a season of fertility and growth, symbolised by all those eggs and rabbits.

These associations offer different possibilities for constructing time, and where we are in relation to it. Think about the UK calendar year, with its attached commercial messages.

It begins with a noticeable proliferation of tv programmes and articles about losing weight and abandoning bad habits. January is presented as the month in which to live healthily, perhaps by abstaining from alcohol Dry January , and giving up meat Veganuary.

Shop displays and advertisements feature sports clothes and special offers on gym membership, so this is all about looking ahead and making an effort now in order to improve ourselves later.

Then in February the health priorities are replaced in the lead up to Valentine's Day which is, supposedly, a time not only for love and romance but also chocolate, champagne and meals out.

The focus shifts abruptly from the future back to now, to enjoyment of the moment - or perhaps, for people whose experience doesn't fit the shiny image, to a feeling of disappointment and even failure.

Immediately after February 14th, supermarkets replace displays of chocolate hearts with chocolate eggs as we reach the current point in the year, the lead up to Easter.

Shopping wise, there is also pressure to buy new clothes, outdoor furniture and seasonal food - the first asparagus and, if you've forgotten about Veganuary, spring lamb.

Again, we are positioned in the present, supposedly enjoying ourselves, but we are also looking ahead to future pleasures, including a fantasy of a summer which is based more on other countries than the UK.

Directly after the Easter holiday, we can expect the future focus to become stronger, with a renewed emphasis on healthy living as everyone is encouraged to lose weight in preparation for summer holidays at the beach.

All of this is completely familiar and might seem amusingly trivial. However, it indicates how our experience of the supposedly 'natural' passing of time, including seasonal change, is shaped by the society and culture.

For social psychologists who utilise analytic approaches like thematic and discursive analysis, one interest in this kind of teasing out of meanings is their link to values and priorities, to what is right and wrong, and what needs to be acted upon.

The cycle of months and activities emphasises ongoing life, comforting us with its seemingly reliable repetition. More linear constructions can position us at an endpoint.

For example, the current news stories about Brexit present the UK as straggling towards the finish, of membership of the EU or just the attempt to relinquish it, and possibly the collapse of the whole political system which enabled the referendum in the first place.

The most important news story this Easter is probably the current protests initiated by Extinction Rebellion 'against the criminal inaction on the climate and ecological crisis'.

As thousands of people demonstrate in London and other cities, we might feel that we occupy several conflicting positions in time, simultaneously. The protesters are challenging the optimism of spring, pointing to ongoing degradation of the environment rather than seasonal renewal.

They are not alone in being concerned. For instance, many of the people who are staying at home this weekend to work on their gardens and allotments might also feel that this spring is not the same new beginning as the cycle implies, because of ominous signs like rising temperatures and other strange weather patterns, and the declining numbers of bees and other familiar insects.

So where are we all positioned now? Are we winding down to an end, of many aspects of the natural environment, of thousands of species, and of the way we currently occupy the planet, because more and more places are becoming unliveable?

These are the threats, quite literally of the end of life as we know it. Yet the climate change protests themselves might be viewed as a new beginning, as action that will produce real responses on a sufficient scale to be effective, by social actors who have previously not engaged with the issue it is interesting, for example, to see the Governor of the Bank of England warning business of the money losses that climate change involves.

So now, in springtime, these protests themselves are perhaps our strongest reason for optimism and the hope of new beginnings.

Happy Easter! This week's blog has links to ideas discussed in the module Advancing social psychology DD A current exhibition, 'The lie of the land', at Milton Keynes Gallery looks at the founding of the city in which the OU is located.

Some of the issues raised by the exhibition, about past visions of the future, link to novelty and the classic concept of 'emergence', the focus of a seminar organised by the Culture and Social Psychology group with other social psychologists, from the University of East London.

This week's blog for social psychology and DD introduces the concept and some related issues. As the Open University celebrates its 50 th anniversary, there is a different kind of commemoration of its location, Milton Keynes, in a new exhibition, 'The lie of the land', at MK Gallery.

The exhibition presents changing images of the British landscape, including the development of Milton Keynes as a built environment that was intended to be 'a city greener than the surrounding countryside'.

The exhibition includes a short film, co-funded by the Open University, in which the artist Gareth Jones looks back over early plans for the city.

He suggests that the optimism which surrounded its original development derived from a combination of two social revolutions, the post-war reforms that established the welfare state as part of a vision of a fairer society, and the events of , including student protests, which are often seen as initiating significant contemporary values and freedoms.

Jones shows that many of the original designs for Milton Keynes were never followed through, including a sculpture park, elaborate public playgrounds and a lakeside disco.

Other dramatic features that did get built, like an elevated pedestrian tunnel, have subsequently been demolished. The film prompts reflections on the complex relationship between past and future, such as how earlier futures can disappear or go out of date.

A notable feature of the drawings is the distinctive 70s fashions worn by the 'future' people. More prosaically, the film reminds us of the difficulty of knowing the future.

This is a particular issue for social psychologists because so much of the project of psychology is about attempting to enable prediction, for instance, by tracing cause and effect, modelling processes and outcomes, or examining people and their behaviour in great detail.

A major attraction of the discipline is its implied promise to explain us to ourselves and, as a logical extension, offer the possibility of managing the lives ahead of us and reducing our future problems.

Yet there are strong arguments, including from some psychologists, that such a project will inevitably fail. Our lives are too complex, there are too many factors in play, any model can only be a simplification.

Emergence was defined by the psychologist G. Mead as 'the occurrence of something which is more than the processes which have led up to it and which by its change, continuance or disappearance, adds to later passages a content they would not otherwise have possessed.

The specific concerns of the seminar's presenters include emotion, mental health, Brexit and the ways that psychological research can be conducted.

This week's blog has links to ideas discussed in the new module Advancing social psychology DD The OU is celebrating its 50th birthday!

This is of course a big event for everyone involved with the university. As the official message puts it, ' In our anniversary year, we will tell our story and create moments that inspire pride, unity and involvement.

In this week's blog for DD and social psychology, Stephanie Taylor discusses some of the issues involved.

Most people are aware that remembering doesn't operate as a kind of mental 'video replay' of the past. They may have experienced doubt about their own memory of an event like a family party, wondering if they recall the actual occasion or just what they were told about it subsequently.

Discursive psychologists are interested in the construction of memories. This is not an argument that all memories are false but a suggestion that two questions need to be asked about anyone's account of what they remember.

The first is 'Why are you talking about this memory now? The point of the first question is that a story about the past fulfils functions in the present, for instance, in the case of a commemoration, to inspire pride and encourage unity.

The point of the second question is that a story about the past is always just one possible version. There could be a different telling, if only because memory is inevitably partial.

Otherwise, as the psychologist Jens Brockmeier has put it, 'completely recalling one's life would take as long as one's life itself' p.

Total memory is impossible, so we should recognise that any account of what is remembered is a selective construction, with a purpose.

Unsurprisingly, the OU's commemoration has already prompted discussions about the best stories to be told. What version of the university's history should be presented?

Which events and people should be selected for recall? It is all very enjoyable. One of my own top choices would be a story from the valedictory lecture of Steven Rose, the OU's first Professor of Biology.

He recalled the first ever OU biology course. Every student was sent, in the post, a package of study materials which contained a live goldfish, to observe, and a pickled sheep's brain, to dissect.

Some serious issues around commemoration were raised at a recent seminar organised by the Culture and Social Psychology CuSP group.

The occasion was a presentation by Dr John E. Richardson, on his research on the commemoration of the Holocaust. He discussed how the remembering of these horrific events is changing with the passing of time, especially now that few survivors remain to present their own memories.

Richardson analysed accounts presented at the UK's Holocaust Memorial Day, showing how the sombre commemorative speeches by contemporary politicians, although respectful, were carefully crafted to fulfil present purposes in line with government and party priorities.

The presentation and the discussion produced strong responses in the seminar audience. One view was that the contemporary speeches were betraying the commemoration of the Holocaust.

The discursive explanation of inevitably selective construction seemed inadequate. The seminar even discussed the extreme argument that the commemoration should be discontinued entirely, to prevent its further exploitation.

But there is an alternative, more positive conceptualisation that is also informed by social psychology. This involves considering commemoration in terms of sociocultural actions.

According to this, the speeches and even the stage managing have value as social practices that acknowledge the past and engage new generations in marking its significance.

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Potential research projects Eyewitness identification evidence Eyewitness memory, perception and attention Developing techniques for working with younger and older witnesses Uses and perceptions of forensic evidence e.

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